With rapid growth in economies and societies, most developing countries are facing common challenges in treating waste, such as municipal solid waste, sludge, hazardous waste, fly ash and slag. Industrial and municipal waste have caused heavy pollution, impacting the environment and human health.
Waste is a growing problem for all developing countries. Viet Nam produces over 15 million tonnes of waste each year from various sources. The reuse, recycling, collection, treatment and disposal of waste can pose a significant risk to the environment. Some Governments have issued polices to encourage recycling, but most do not have the capacity to develop waste utilization technologies. Both Viet Nam and Thailand have limited access to advanced waste utilization technologies nationwide.